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Linux系统环境基于Docker搭建Mysql数据库服务实战

开发技术 开发技术 2周前 (09-14) 21次浏览

开放端口规划:

ps:
1.不推荐使用默认端口-3306,建议自定义端口
2.如果采用阿里云服务器,在安全组开放端口
3.自建服务器依据实际情况打开防火墙开放端口[各个系统防火墙不一样,操作有所不同],譬如:
Centos7 环境-防火墙[firewall-cmd]:

firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=3407/tcp --permanent
firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=3408/tcp --permanent
firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=3409/tcp --permanent

4.防火墙[firewall-cmd]常用操作

(1)设置开机启用防火墙:systemctl enable firewalld.service
(2)设置开机禁用防火墙:systemctl disable firewalld.service
(3)启动防火墙:systemctl start firewalld
(4)关闭防火墙:systemctl stop firewalld
(5)检查防火墙状态:systemctl status firewalld
二、使用firewall-cmd配置端口
(1)查看防火墙状态:firewall-cmd --state
(2)重新加载配置:firewall-cmd --reload
(3)查看开放的端口:firewall-cmd --list-ports
(4)开启防火墙端口:firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=9200/tcp --permanent
  命令含义:
  –zone #作用域
  –add-port=9200/tcp #添加端口,格式为:端口/通讯协议
  –permanent #永久生效,没有此参数重启后失效
  注意:添加端口后,必须用命令firewall-cmd --reload重新加载一遍才会生效
    firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=9200/tcp --permanent
(5)关闭防火墙端口:firewall-cmd --zone=public --remove-port=9200/tcp --permanent

查找镜像:docker search mysql

docker search mysql

拉取镜像:docker pull mysql

docker pull mysql

ps:如果不是自建仓库镜像,一般从https://hub.docker.com/拉取官方镜像:
docker pull mysql:5.7 # 拉取mysql 5.7
docker pull mysql # 拉取最新版mysql镜像

部署mysql服务:
1.简单命令实例:[主要使用Docker原生命令部署]

docker run -itd -p 3306:3306 --restart always --name mysql-server   -e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=db-password -e MYSQL_USER=db-username  mysql:tag

2.使用docker-compose 部署实例:使用docker-compose搭建
docker-compose.yml文件进行部署可从,github和码云等云仓库git clone 然后修改执行[docker-compose up -d]部署:
docker-compose.yml 配置实例:

version: '2'
services:
  db:
    image: 'mysql/mysql-server:tag'
    restart: always
    container_name: mysql-server
    environment:
      MYSQL_USER: username
      MYSQL_PASSWORD: password
      MYSQL_DATABASE: database
      MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: password
    ports:
      - 'server-port[自定义端口]: container-port[默认3306]'

3.使用Docker Portainer可视化界面自建进行部署
Linux系统环境基于Docker搭建Mysql数据库服务实战

Mysql8.0 数据库配置

基于Docker安装数据库安装完成之后,只能在本地登录,需要进行授权远程访问连接操作。

  • 1.创建用户和授权
# 创建自定义myql用户-username 和密码-pssword
create user 'username'@'%' identified by 'pssword';
>ps:create user 'developer'@'%' identified by '123456Abc@2019';

# 对自定义用户进行授权操作
grant all privileges on *.* to 'username'@'%' with grant option;
>ps:grant all privileges on *.* to 'developer'@'%' with grant option;

# 刷新操作权限[切记此点]
flush privileges;

进入[root@mysql-develop]容器:

root@mysql-develop:/# mysql -u root -p
Enter password:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or g.
Your MySQL connection id is 15
Server version: 8.0.18 MySQL Community Server - GPL

Copyright (c) 2000, 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or 'h' for help. Type 'c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql> use mysql;
Reading table information for completion of table and column names
You can turn off this feature to get a quicker startup with -A

Database changed
mysql> create user 'developer'@'%' identified by '123456Abc@2019';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

mysql> grant all privileges on *.* to 'developer'@'%' with grant option;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql>
mysql> flush privileges;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

如图:
Linux系统环境基于Docker搭建Mysql数据库服务实战

ps:
1.mysql8.0数据操作授权之前得先自定义创建用户,否则无法授权远程登录访问
2.mysql8.0授权无法使用mysql5.7方式:
grant all privileges on . to ‘developer’@’%’ identified by ‘123456Abc@2019’;
请使用:grant all privileges on . to ‘developer’@’%’ with grant option;

第一种:grant all privileges on . to ‘developer’@’%’ identified by ‘123456Abc@2019’ with grant option;

mysql> use mysql
Database changed
mysql> grant all privileges on *.* to 'developer'@'%'  identified by '123456Abc@2019' with grant option;
ERROR 1064 (42000): You have an error in your SQL syntax; check the manual that corresponds to your MySQL server version for the right syntax to use near 'identified by '123456Abc@2019' with grant option' at line 1

第二种:grant all privileges on . to ‘developer’@’%’ identified by 123456Abc@2019’;

mysql> use mysql;
Database changed
mysql> grant all privileges on *.* to 'developer'@'%'  identified by '123456Abc@2019';
ERROR 1064 (42000): You have an error in your SQL syntax; check the manual that corresponds to your MySQL server version for the right syntax to use near 'identified by '123456Abc@2019 at line 1
mysql>

3.一定而且必须进行刷新权限操作,否则无法生效,甚至无法授权远程访问

2.mysql8.0远程访问链接[root 和developer]

在 mysql 数据库的 user 表中查看当前用户的相关信息:

mysql> use mysql
Database changed
mysql> select host, user, authentication_string, plugin from user;
+-----------+------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+
| host      | user             | authentication_string                                                  | plugin                |
+-----------+------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+
| %         | developer        | *F286F2787D69B007CFDE83C115325B2A6FF0B6D2                              | caching_sha2_password |
| %         | root             | *F286F2787D69B007CFDE83C115325B2A6FF0B6D2                              | caching_sha2_password |
| localhost | mysql.infoschema | $A$005$THISISACOMBINATIONOFINVALIDSALTANDPASSWORDTHATMUSTNEVERBRBEUSED | caching_sha2_password |
| localhost | mysql.session    | $A$005$THISISACOMBINATIONOFINVALIDSALTANDPASSWORDTHATMUSTNEVERBRBEUSED | caching_sha2_password |
| localhost | mysql.sys        | $A$005$THISISACOMBINATIONOFINVALIDSALTANDPASSWORDTHATMUSTNEVERBRBEUSED | caching_sha2_password |
_Oo8xLxsqwEOxEkY1i7kToF8VbktysFDQuevvwYqsK61Qi7 | caching_sha2_password |
+-----------+------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)
mysql>

root 用户:

mysql> use mysql;
Database changed
mysql> GRANT ALL ON *.* TO 'root'@'%';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> ALTER USER 'root'@'%' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY '123456Abc@2019;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
mysql> flush privileges;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

developer用户:

mysql> use mysql;
Database changed
mysql> GRANT ALL ON *.* TO 'developer'@'%';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> ALTER USER 'developer'@'%' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY '123456Abc@2019';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> flush privileges;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql>

修改加密规则:

mysql> use mysql
Reading table information for completion of table and column names
You can turn off this feature to get a quicker startup with -A

Database changed
mysql> ALTER USER 'root'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY '123456Abc@2019' PASSWORD EXPIRE NEVER;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

mysql> ALTER USER 'developer'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY '123456Abc@2019' PASSWORD EXPIRE NEVER;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

mysql> flush privileges;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql>

设置完成需要再次验证用户权限信息:

mysql> use mysql
Database changed
mysql> select host, user, authentication_string, plugin from user;
+-----------+------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+
| host      | user             | authentication_string                                                  | plugin                |
+-----------+------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+
| %         | developer        | *F286F2787D69B007CFDE83C115325B2A6FF0B6D2                              | mysql_native_password |
| %         | root             | *F286F2787D69B007CFDE83C115325B2A6FF0B6D2                              | mysql_native_password |
| localhost | mysql.infoschema | $A$005$THISISACOMBINATIONOFINVALIDSALTANDPASSWORDTHATMUSTNEVERBRBEUSED | caching_sha2_password |
| localhost | mysql.session    | $A$005$THISISACOMBINATIONOFINVALIDSALTANDPASSWORDTHATMUSTNEVERBRBEUSED | caching_sha2_password |
| localhost | mysql.sys        | $A$005$THISISACOMBINATIONOFINVALIDSALTANDPASSWORDTHATMUSTNEVERBRBEUSED | caching_sha2_password |
_Oo8xLxsqwEOxEkY1i7kToF8VbktysFDQuevvwYqsK61Qi7 | caching_sha2_password |
+-----------+------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql>

到此,Navicat测试连接msql:
Linux系统环境基于Docker搭建Mysql数据库服务实战

ps[注意事项]:
1.mysql8.0版本加密规则插件的plugin 已经换为caching_sha2_password,而之前的版本的加密规则是mysql_native_password,经过实测已经不适用于Navicat 12以下版本,可依据自身情况升级客户端到Navicat 12+,否则会报2059 或者1251 错误。

[Question-01].Navicat 2059错误:
Linux系统环境基于Docker搭建Mysql数据库服务实战

[Question-02].Navicat 1251错误:
Linux系统环境基于Docker搭建Mysql数据库服务实战

2.鉴于第一条的情况,可以将caching_sha2_password修改为mysql_native_password做一个兼容,低版本也可适用。
3.修改加密规则,使得密码长期有效。

完整sql记录:

mysql> use mysql
mysql> create user 'developer'@'%' identified by '123456Abc@2019';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

mysql> grant all privileges on *.* to 'developer'@'%' with grant option;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

mysql> flush privileges;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> GRANT ALL ON *.* TO 'root'@'%';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> ALTER USER 'root'@'%' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY '123456Abc@2019';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

mysql> GRANT ALL ON *.* TO 'developer'@'%';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> ALTER USER 'developer'@'%' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY '123456Abc@2019';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

mysql>  ALTER USER 'root'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY 'GuangDian@2019' PASSWORD EXPIRE NEVER;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

mysql> ALTER USER 'developer'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY 'GuangDian@2019' PASSWORD EXPIRE NEVER;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

mysql> flush privileges;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql>

3套mysql环境:
mysql-develop:
IP:192.168.0.1
Port:3407
Username:root/developer
password:123456Abc@2019

mysql-test:
IP:192.168.0.2
Port:3408
Username:root/developer
password:123456Abc@2019

mysql-release:
IP:192.168.0.3
Port:3409
Username:root/developer
password:123456Abc@2019

数据文件迁移操作

1.基于mysqldump+docker cp 命令进行操作

  • 方式1:直接在宿主机器进行数据备份
docker exec -it docker-id[容器实际部署id] mysqldump -u root -p passowrd --databases dbA dbB > /root/all-databases-backup.sql
  • 方式2:先进入到docker在执行mysqldump,然后再将导出的sql拷贝到宿主
#进入docker
docker exec -it docker-id[容器实际部署id] /bin/bash
#可选的
source /etc/profile
#执行导出命令
mysqldump -u username -p password --databases dbA dbB > /root/all-databases-backup.sql
#拷贝到宿主机器
#退出Docker,执行exit命令
exit
#此时,已经在宿主的环境,执行拷贝命令,将sql文件从docker红拷贝出来
docker cp docker-id[容器实际部署id]: /root/all-databases-backup.sql  /root/all-databases-backup.sql

2.导入数据文件到容器

#拷贝备份的文件到docker中
docker cp /root/all-databases-backup.sql docker-id[容器实际部署id]:/root/all-databases-backup.sql
#先进入docker环境,然后导入到数据库
docker exec -it xxx /bin/bash
mysql -u username -p password < /root/all-databases-backup.sql

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