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YOLOv4: Darknet 如何于 Docker 编译,及训练 COCO 子集

开发技术 开发技术 3周前 (09-11) 22次浏览

YOLO 算法是非常著名的目标检测算法。从其全称 You Only Look Once: Unified, Real-Time Object Detection ,可以看出它的特性:

  • Look Once: one-stage (one-shot object detectors) 算法,把目标检测的两个任务分类和定位一步完成。
  • Unified: 统一的架构,提供 end-to-end 的训练和预测。
  • Real-Time: 实时性,初代论文给出的指标 FPS 45 , mAP 63.4 。

YOLOv4: Optimal Speed and Accuracy of Object Detection ,于今年 4 月公布,采用了很多近些年 CNN 领域优秀的优化技巧。其平衡了精度与速度,目前在实时目标检测算法中精度是最高的。

论文地址:

源码地址:

本文将介绍 YOLOv4 官方 Darknet 实现,如何于 Docker 编译使用。以及从 MS COCO 2017 数据集中怎么选出部分物体,训练出模型。

主要内容有:

  • 准备 Docker 镜像
  • 准备 COCO 数据集
  • 用预训练模型进行推断
  • 准备 COCO 数据子集
  • 训练自己的模型并推断
  • 参考内容

准备 Docker 镜像

首先,准备 Docker ,请见:Docker: Nvidia Driver, Nvidia Docker 推荐安装步骤 。

之后,开始准备镜像,从下到上的层级为:

nvidia/cuda

准备 Nvidia 基础 CUDA 镜像。这里我们选择 CUDA 10.2 ,不用最新 CUDA 11,因为现在 PyTorch 等都还都是 10.2 呢。

拉取镜像:

docker pull nvidia/cuda:10.2-cudnn7-devel-ubuntu18.04

测试镜像:

$ docker run --gpus all nvidia/cuda:10.2-cudnn7-devel-ubuntu18.04 nvidia-smi
Sun Aug  8 00:00:00 2020
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| NVIDIA-SMI 440.100      Driver Version: 440.100      CUDA Version: 10.2     |
|-------------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
| GPU  Name        Persistence-M| Bus-Id        Disp.A | Volatile Uncorr. ECC |
| Fan  Temp  Perf  Pwr:Usage/Cap|         Memory-Usage | GPU-Util  Compute M. |
|===============================+======================+======================|
|   0  GeForce RTX 208...  Off  | 00000000:07:00.0  On |                  N/A |
|  0%   48C    P8    14W / 300W |    340MiB / 11016MiB |      2%      Default |
+-------------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
|   1  GeForce RTX 208...  Off  | 00000000:08:00.0 Off |                  N/A |
|  0%   45C    P8    19W / 300W |      1MiB / 11019MiB |      0%      Default |
+-------------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+

+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Processes:                                                       GPU Memory |
|  GPU       PID   Type   Process name                             Usage      |
|=============================================================================|
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+

OpenCV

基于 nvidia/cuda 镜像,构建 OpenCV 的镜像:

cd docker/ubuntu18.04-cuda10.2/opencv4.4.0/

docker build 
-t joinaero/ubuntu18.04-cuda10.2:opencv4.4.0 
--build-arg opencv_ver=4.4.0 
--build-arg opencv_url=https://gitee.com/cubone/opencv.git 
--build-arg opencv_contrib_url=https://gitee.com/cubone/opencv_contrib.git 
.

其 Dockerfile 可见这里: https://github.com/ikuokuo/start-yolov4/blob/master/docker/ubuntu18.04-cuda10.2/opencv4.4.0/Dockerfile 。

Darknet

基于 OpenCV 镜像,构建 Darknet 镜像:

cd docker/ubuntu18.04-cuda10.2/opencv4.4.0/darknet/

docker build 
-t joinaero/ubuntu18.04-cuda10.2:opencv4.4.0-darknet 
.

其 Dockerfile 可见这里: https://github.com/ikuokuo/start-yolov4/blob/master/docker/ubuntu18.04-cuda10.2/opencv4.4.0/darknet/Dockerfile 。

上述镜像已上传 Docker Hub 。如果 Nvidia 驱动能够支持 CUDA 10.2 ,那可以直接拉取该镜像:

docker pull joinaero/ubuntu18.04-cuda10.2:opencv4.4.0-darknet

准备 COCO 数据集

MS COCO 2017 下载地址: http://cocodataset.org/#download

图像,包括:

标注,包括:

用预训练模型进行推断

预训练模型 yolov4.weights ,下载地址 https://github.com/AlexeyAB/darknet/releases/download/darknet_yolo_v3_optimal/yolov4.weights 。

运行镜像:

xhost +local:docker

docker run -it --gpus all 
-e DISPLAY 
-e QT_X11_NO_MITSHM=1 
-v /tmp/.X11-unix:/tmp/.X11-unix 
-v $HOME/.Xauthority:/root/.Xauthority 
--name darknet 
--mount type=bind,source=$HOME/Codes/devel/datasets/coco2017,target=/home/coco2017 
--mount type=bind,source=$HOME/Codes/devel/models/yolov4,target=/home/yolov4 
joinaero/ubuntu18.04-cuda10.2:opencv4.4.0-darknet

进行推断:

./darknet detector test cfg/coco.data cfg/yolov4.cfg /home/yolov4/yolov4.weights 
-thresh 0.25 -ext_output -show -out /home/coco2017/result.json 
/home/coco2017/test2017/000000000001.jpg

推断结果:

YOLOv4: Darknet 如何于 Docker 编译,及训练 COCO 子集

准备 COCO 数据子集

MS COCO 2017 数据集有 80 个物体标签。我们从中选取自己关注的物体,重组个子数据集。

首先,获取样例代码:

git clone https://github.com/ikuokuo/start-yolov4.git
  • scripts/coco2yolo.py: COCO 数据集转 YOLO 数据集的脚本
  • scripts/coco/label.py: COCO 数据集的物体标签有哪些
  • cfg/coco/coco.names: 编辑我们想要的那些物体标签

之后,准备数据集:

cd start-yolov4/
pip install -r scripts/requirements.txt

export COCO_DIR=$HOME/Codes/devel/datasets/coco2017

# train
python scripts/coco2yolo.py 
--coco_img_dir $COCO_DIR/train2017/ 
--coco_ann_file $COCO_DIR/annotations/instances_train2017.json 
--yolo_names_file ./cfg/coco/coco.names 
--output_dir ~/yolov4/coco2017/ 
--output_name train2017 
--output_img_prefix /home/yolov4/coco2017/train2017/

# valid
python scripts/coco2yolo.py 
--coco_img_dir $COCO_DIR/val2017/ 
--coco_ann_file $COCO_DIR/annotations/instances_val2017.json 
--yolo_names_file ./cfg/coco/coco.names 
--output_dir ~/yolov4/coco2017/ 
--output_name val2017 
--output_img_prefix /home/yolov4/coco2017/val2017/

数据集,内容如下:

~/yolov4/coco2017/
├── train2017/
│   ├── 000000000071.jpg
│   ├── 000000000071.txt
│   ├── ...
│   ├── 000000581899.jpg
│   └── 000000581899.txt
├── train2017.txt
├── val2017/
│   ├── 000000001353.jpg
│   ├── 000000001353.txt
│   ├── ...
│   ├── 000000579818.jpg
│   └── 000000579818.txt
└── val2017.txt

训练自己的模型并推断

准备必要文件

  • cfg/coco/coco.names <cfg/coco/coco.names.bak has original 80 objects>

    • Edit: keep desired objects
  • cfg/coco/yolov4.cfg <cfg/coco/yolov4.cfg.bak is original file>

    • Download yolov4.cfg, then changed:
    • batch=64, subdivisions=32 <32 for 8-12 GB GPU-VRAM>
    • width=512, height=512 <any value multiple of 32>
    • classes=<your number of objects in each of 3 [yolo]-layers>
    • max_batches=<classes*2000, but not less than number of training images and not less than 6000>
    • steps=<max_batches*0.8, max_batches*0.9>
    • filters=<(classes+5)x3, in the 3 [convolutional] before each [yolo] layer>
    • filters=<(classes+9)x3, in the 3 [convolutional] before each [Gaussian_yolo] layer>
  • cfg/coco/coco.data

    • Edit: train, valid to YOLO datas
  • csdarknet53-omega.conv.105

    • Download csdarknet53-omega_final.weights, then run:
    docker run -it --rm --gpus all 
    --mount type=bind,source=$HOME/Codes/devel/models/yolov4,target=/home/yolov4 
    joinaero/ubuntu18.04-cuda10.2:opencv4.4.0-darknet
    
    ./darknet partial cfg/csdarknet53-omega.cfg /home/yolov4/csdarknet53-omega_final.weights /home/yolov4/csdarknet53-omega.conv.105 105
    

训练自己的模型

运行镜像:

cd start-yolov4/

xhost +local:docker

docker run -it --gpus all 
-e DISPLAY 
-e QT_X11_NO_MITSHM=1 
-v /tmp/.X11-unix:/tmp/.X11-unix 
-v $HOME/.Xauthority:/root/.Xauthority 
--name darknet 
--mount type=bind,source=$HOME/Codes/devel/models/yolov4,target=/home/yolov4 
--mount type=bind,source=$HOME/yolov4/coco2017,target=/home/yolov4/coco2017 
--mount type=bind,source=$PWD/cfg/coco,target=/home/cfg 
joinaero/ubuntu18.04-cuda10.2:opencv4.4.0-darknet

进行训练:

mkdir -p /home/yolov4/coco2017/backup

# Training command
./darknet detector train /home/cfg/coco.data /home/cfg/yolov4.cfg /home/yolov4/csdarknet53-omega.conv.105 -map

中途可以中断训练,然后这样继续:

# Continue training
./darknet detector train /home/cfg/coco.data /home/cfg/yolov4.cfg /home/yolov4/coco2017/backup/yolov4_last.weights -map

yolov4_last.weights 每迭代 100 次,会被记录。

如果多 GPU 训练,可以在 1000 次迭代后,加参数 -gpus 0,1 ,再继续:

# How to train with multi-GPU
# 1. Train it first on 1 GPU for like 1000 iterations
# 2. Then stop and by using partially-trained model `/backup/yolov4_1000.weights` run training with multigpu
./darknet detector train /home/cfg/coco.data /home/cfg/yolov4.cfg /home/yolov4/coco2017/backup/yolov4_1000.weights -gpus 0,1 -map

训练过程,记录如下:

YOLOv4: Darknet 如何于 Docker 编译,及训练 COCO 子集

参数 -map 后,上图会显示有红线 mAP

查看模型 mAP@IoU=50 精度:

$ ./darknet detector map /home/cfg/coco.data /home/cfg/yolov4.cfg /home/yolov4/coco2017/backup/yolov4_final.weights
...
Loading weights from /home/yolov4/coco2017/backup/yolov4_final.weights...
 seen 64, trained: 384 K-images (6 Kilo-batches_64)
Done! Loaded 162 layers from weights-file

 calculation mAP (mean average precision)...
 Detection layer: 139 - type = 27
 Detection layer: 150 - type = 27
 Detection layer: 161 - type = 27
160
 detections_count = 745, unique_truth_count = 190
class_id = 0, name = train, ap = 80.61%   	 (TP = 142, FP = 18)

 for conf_thresh = 0.25, precision = 0.89, recall = 0.75, F1-score = 0.81
 for conf_thresh = 0.25, TP = 142, FP = 18, FN = 48, average IoU = 75.31 %

 IoU threshold = 50 %, used Area-Under-Curve for each unique Recall
 mean average precision (mAP@0.50) = 0.806070, or 80.61 %
Total Detection Time: 4 Seconds

进行推断:

./darknet detector test /home/cfg/coco.data /home/cfg/yolov4.cfg /home/yolov4/coco2017/backup/yolov4_final.weights 
-ext_output -show /home/yolov4/coco2017/val2017/000000006040.jpg

推断结果:

YOLOv4: Darknet 如何于 Docker 编译,及训练 COCO 子集

参考内容

  • Train Detector on MS COCO (trainvalno5k 2014) dataset
  • How to evaluate accuracy and speed of YOLOv4
  • How to train (to detect your custom objects)

结语

为什么用 Docker ? Docker 导出镜像,可简化环境部署。如 PyTorch 也都有镜像,可以直接上手使用。

关于 Darknet 还有什么? 下回介绍 Darknet 于 Ubuntu 编译,及使用 Python 接口 。

Let’s go coding ~


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