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一个比较好的expect脚本学习手册

互联网 diligentman 2周前 (10-16) 10次浏览

http://xstarcd.github.io/wiki/shell/expect.html

expect – 自动交互脚本

目录

expect参数

  • expect教程中文版
  • expect中文手册
  • expect说明

启用选项

  • -c:执行脚本前先执行的命令,可多次使用。
  • -d:debug模式,可以在运行时输出一些诊断信息,与在脚本开始处使用exp_internal 1相似。
  • -D:启用交换调式器,可设一整数参数
  • -f:从文件读取命令,仅用于使用#!时。如果文件名为”-“,则从stdin读取(使用”./-“从文件名为-的文件读取)。
  • -i:交互式输入命令,使用”exit”或”EOF”退出输入状态。
  • --:标示选项结束(如果你需要传递与expect选项相似的参数给脚本时),可放到#!行:#!/usr/bin/expect --
  • -v:显示expect版本信息。

常用命令

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# 命令行参数

# $argv,参数数组,使用[lindex $argv n]获取,$argv 0为脚本名字

# $argc,参数个数

set username [lindex $argv 1]  # 获取第1个参数

set passwd [lindex $argv 2]    # 获取第2个参数

 

set timeout 30 # 设置超时

 

# spawn是expect内部命令,开启ssh连接

spawn ssh -l username 192.168.1.1

 

# 判断上次输出结果里是否包含“password:”的字符串,如果有则立即返回,否则就等待一段时间(timeout)后返回

expect "password:"

 

# 发送内容ispass(密码、命令等)

send "ispassr"

 

# 发送内容给用户

send_user "$argv0 [lrange $argv 0 2]n"

send_user "It's OKr"

# 执行完成后保持交互状态,控制权交给控制台(手工操作)。否则会完成后会退出。

interact

命令介绍

  • close:关闭当前进程的连接。
  • debug:控制调试器。
  • disconnect:断开进程连接(进程仍在后台运行)。
    • 定时读取密码、执行priv_prog

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      send_user "password? "

      expect_user -re "(.*)n"

      for {} 1 {} {

          if {[fork]!=0} { sleep 3600;continue}

          disconnect

          spawn priv_prog

          expect Password:

          send "$expect_out(1,string)r"

          . . .

          exit

      }

  • exit:退出expect。
  • exp_continue [-continue_timer]:继续执行下面的匹配。
  • exp_internal [-f file] value:

expect范例

  • 自动telnet会话

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    #!/usr/bin/expect -f

    set ip [lindex $argv 0 ]         # 接收第1个参数,作为IP

    set userid [lindex $argv 1 ]     # 接收第2个参数,作为userid

    set mypassword [lindex $argv 2 ] # 接收第3个参数,作为密码

    set mycommand [lindex $argv 3 ]  # 接收第4个参数,作为命令

    set timeout 10                   # 设置超时时间

     

    # 向远程服务器请求打开一个telnet会话,并等待服务器询问用户名

    spawn telnet $ip

        expect "username:"

        # 输入用户名,并等待服务器询问密码

        send "$useridr"

        expect "password:"

        # 输入密码,并等待键入需要运行的命令

        send "$mypasswordr"

        expect "%"

        # 输入预先定好的密码,等待运行结果

        send "$mycommandr"

        expect "%"

        # 将运行结果存入到变量中,显示出来或者写到磁盘中

        set results $expect_out(buffer)

        # 退出telnet会话,等待服务器的退出提示EOF

        send "exitr"

        expect eof

  • 自动建立FTP会话

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    #!/usr/bin/expect -f

    set ip [lindex $argv 0 ]         # 接收第1个参数,作为IP

    set userid [lindex $argv 1 ]     # 接收第2个参数,作为Userid

    set mypassword [lindex $argv 2 ] # 接收第3个参数,作为密码

    set timeout 10                   # 设置超时时间

     

    # 向远程服务器请求打开一个FTP会话,并等待服务器询问用户名

    spawn ftp $ip

        expect "username:"

        # 输入用户名,并等待服务器询问密码

        send "$useridr"

        expect "password:"

        # 输入密码,并等待FTP提示符的出现

        send "$mypasswordr"

        expect "ftp>"

        # 切换到二进制模式,并等待FTP提示符的出现

        send "binr"

        expect "ftp>"

        # 关闭ftp的提示符

        send "promptr"

        expect "ftp>"

        # 下载所有文件

        send "mget *r"

        expect "ftp>"

        # 退出此次ftp会话,并等待服务器的退出提示EOF

        send "byer"

        expect eof

  • 自动登录ssh执行命令

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    #!/usr/bin/expect

    set IP     [lindex $argv 0]

    set USER   [lindex $argv 1]

    set PASSWD [lindex $argv 2]

    set CMD    [lindex $argv 3]

     

    spawn ssh $USER@$IP $CMD

    expect {

        "(yes/no)?" {

            send "yesr"

            expect "password:"

            send "$PASSWDr"

            }

        "password:" {send "$PASSWDr"}

        "* to host" { exit 1}

        }

    expect eof

  • 自动登录ssh

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    #!/usr/bin/expect -f 

    set ip [lindex $argv 0 ]         # 接收第1个参数,作为IP

    set username [lindex $argv 1 ]   # 接收第2个参数,作为username

    set mypassword [lindex $argv 2 ] # 接收第3个参数,作为密码

    set timeout 10                   # 设置超时时间

     

    spawn ssh $username@$ip       # 发送ssh请求

    expect {                      # 返回信息匹配

    "*yes/no" { send "yesr"; exp_continue}  # 第一次ssh连接会提示yes/no,继续 

    "*password:" { send "$mypasswordr" }    # 出现密码提示,发送密码 

    }

    interact        # 交互模式,用户会停留在远程服务器上面

  • 批量登录ssh服务器执行操作范例,设定增量的for循环

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    #!/usr/bin/expect

    for { set i 10} {$i <= 12} {incr i} {

        set timeout 30

        set ssh_user [lindex $argv 0]

        spawn ssh -i .ssh/$ssh_user abc$i.com

     

        expect_before "no)?" {

        send "yesr" }

        sleep 1

        expect "password*"

        send "hellor"

        expect "*#"

        send "echo hello expect! > /tmp/expect.txtr"

        expect "*#"

        send "echor"

    }

    exit

  • 批量登录ssh并执行命令,foreach语法

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    #!/usr/bin/expect

    if {$argc!=2} {

        send_user "usage: ./expect ssh_user passwordn"

        exit

    }

    foreach i {11 12} {

        set timeout 30

        set ssh_user [lindex $argv 0]

        set password [lindex $argv 1]

        spawn ssh -i .ssh/$ssh_user root@xxx.yy.com

        expect_before "no)?" {

        send "yesr" }

        sleep 1

     

        expect "Enter passphrase for key*"

        send "passwordr"

        expect "*#"

        send "echo hello expect! > /tmp/expect.txtr"

        expect "*#"

        send "echor"

    }

    exit

  • 另一自动ssh范例,从命令行获取服务器IP,foreach语法,expect嵌套

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    #!/usr/bin/expect

    # 使用方法: script_name ip1 ip2 ip3 ...

     

    set timeout 20

    if {$argc < 1} {

      puts "Usage: script IPs"

      exit 1

    }

    # 替换你自己的用户名

    set user "username"

    #替换你自己的登录密码

    set password "yourpassword"

     

    foreach IP $argv {

    spawn ssh $user@$IP

     

    expect

      "(yes/no)?" {

        send "yesr"

        expect "password:?" {

          send "$passwordr"

        }

      } "password:?" {

        send "$passwordr"

    }

     

    expect "$?"

    # 替换你要执行的命令

    send "lastr"

    expect "$?"

    sleep 10

    send "exitr"

    expect eof

    }

  • 批量ssh执行命令,用shell调用tclsh方式、多进程同时执行
    • tclsh – Simple shell containing Tcl interpreter

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      #!/bin/sh

      # -*- tcl -*-

      exec tclsh $0 "$@"

      package require Expect

      set username [lindex $argv 0]

      set password [lindex $argv 1]

      set argv [lrange $argv 2 end]

      set prompt "(%|#|\$) $"

      foreach ip $argv {

          spawn ssh -t $username@$ip sh

          lappend ids $spawn_id

      }

      expect_before -i ids eof {

          set index [lsearch $ids $expect_out(spawn_id)]

          set ids [lreplace $ids $index $index]

          if [llength $ids] exp_continue

      }

      expect -i ids "(yes/no)\?" {

          send -i $expect_out(spawn_id) yesr

          exp_continue

      } -i ids "Enter passphrase for key" {

          send -i $expect_out(spawn_id) r

          exp_continue

      } -i ids "assword:" {

          send -i $expect_out(spawn_id) $passwordr

          exp_continue

      } -i ids -re $prompt {

          set spawn_id $expect_out(spawn_id)

          send "echo hello; exitr"

          exp_continue

      } timeout {

          exit 1

      }

  • ssh登录过程常规提示文字
    The authenticity of host '192.168.17.35 (192.168.17.35)' can't be established.
    RSA key fingerprint is 25:e8:4c:89:a3:b2:06:ee:de:66:c7:7e:1b:fa:1c:c5.
    Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?
    
    
    Warning: Permanently added '192.168.17.35' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
    Enter passphrase for key '/data/key/my_dsa':
    
    
    Last login: Sun Jan 26 13:39:37 2014 from 192.168.11.143
    [root@master003 ~]#
    
    
    root@192.168.16.90's password:
    
    
    Last login: Thu Jan 23 17:50:43 2014 from 192.168.11.102
    [root@lvsmaster ~]#
  • ssh自动登录expect脚本:ssh.expect

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    #!/usr/bin/expect -f

    # Auther:YuanXing

    # Update:2014-02-08

    if {$argc < 4} {

        send_user "Usage:n  $argv0 IPaddr User Passwd Port Passphrasen"

        puts stderr "argv error!n"

        sleep 1

        exit 1

    }

     

    set ip         [lindex $argv 0 ]

    set user       [lindex $argv 1 ]

    set passwd     [lindex $argv 2 ]

    set port       [lindex $argv 3 ]

    set passphrase [lindex $argv 4 ]

    set timeout 6

    if {$port == ""} {

        set port 22

    }

    #send_user "IP:$ip,User:$user,Passwd:$passwd,Port:$port,Passphrase:$passphrase"

    spawn ssh -p $port $user@$ip

     

    expect_before "(yes/no)\?" {

        send "yesr"}

     

    expect

    "Enter passphrase for key*" {

        send "$passphraser"

        exp_continue

    } " password:?" {

        send "$passwdr"

        exp_continue

    } "*[#\$]" {

        interact

    } "* to host" {

        send_user "Connect faild!"

        exit 2

    } timeout {

        send_user "Connect timeout!"

        exit 2

    } eof {

        send_user "Lost connect!"

        exit

    }

  • Mikrotik backup script using ssh and expect
    • http://www.pmoghadam.com/homepage/HTML/mikrotik-backup-script-ssh-expect.html

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      #!/bin/bash

      # BY: Pejman Moghadam

      # TAG: mikrotik, ssh, expect, lftp

      # DATE: 2012-05-27 14:42:14

       

      BACKUP_DIR="/var/backups"

      HOSTNAME="192.168.88.1"

      PORT="22"

      USER="admin"

      PASS="123456"

      TMP=$(mktemp)

      TODAY=$(date +%F)

      FILENAME="$HOSTNAME-$TODAY"

      PATH="/usr/local/sbin:/usr/sbin:/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin"

       

      # create expect script

      cat > $TMP << EOF

      #exp_internal 1 # Uncomment for debug

      set timeout -1

      spawn ssh -p$PORT $USER@$HOSTNAME

      match_max 100000

      expect -exact "password:"

      send -- "$PASSr"

      sleep 1

      expect " > "

      send -- "/export file=$FILENAMEr"

      expect " > "

      send -- "/system backup save name=$FILENAMEr"

      expect " > "

      send -- "quitr"

      expect eof

      EOF

       

      # run expect script

      #cat $TMP # Uncomment for debug

      expect -f $TMP

       

      # remove expect script

      rm $TMP

       

      # download and remove backup files

      # "xfer:clobber on" means overwrite existing files

      cd ${BACKUP_DIR}

      echo "

        set xfer:clobber on

        get ${FILENAME}.rsc

        rm ${FILENAME}.rsc

        get ${FILENAME}.backup

        rm ${FILENAME}.backup" |

      lftp -u $USER,$PASS $HOSTNAME


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