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R语言进行Twitter数据可视化

互联网 diligentman 5天前 7次浏览

作者|Audhi Aprilliant
编译|VK
来源|Towards Datas Science

R语言进行Twitter数据可视化

概述

对于这个项目,我们在2019年5月28-29日通过爬虫来使用Twitter的原始数据。此外,数据是CSV格式(逗号分隔),可以在这里下载。

https://github.com/audhiapril…

它涉及两个主题,一个是包含关键字“Joko Widodo”的Joko Widodo的数据,另一个是带有关键字“Prabowo Subianto”的Prabowo Subianto的数据。其中包括几个变量和信息,以确定用户情绪。实际上,数据有16个变量或属性和1000多个观察值。表1列出了一些变量。

# 导入库
library(ggplot2)
library(lubridate)

# 加载Joko Widodo的数据
data.jokowi.df = read.csv(file = 'data-joko-widodo.csv',
                          header = TRUE,
                          sep = ',')
senti.jokowi = read.csv(file = 'sentiment-joko-widodo.csv',
                        header = TRUE,
                        sep = ',')
                        
# 加载Prabowo Subianto的数据
data.prabowo.df = read.csv(file = 'data-prabowo-subianto.csv',
                           header = TRUE,
                           sep = ',')
senti.prabowo = read.csv(file = 'sentiment-prabowo-subianto.csv',
                         header = TRUE,
                         sep = ',')

R语言进行Twitter数据可视化

数据可视化

数据探索旨在从Twitter数据中获取任何信息。应该指出的是,数据已经进行了文本预处理。我们对那些被认为是很有趣的变量进行探索。。

# TWEETS的条形图-JOKO WIDODO
data.jokowi.df$created = ymd_hms(data.jokowi.df$created,
                                 tz = 'Asia/Jakarta')
# 另一种制作“date”和“hour”变量的方法
data.jokowi.df$date = date(data.jokowi.df$created)
data.jokowi.df$hour = hour(data.jokowi.df$created)
# 日期2019-05-29
data.jokowi.date1 = subset(x = data.jokowi.df,
                           date == '2019-05-29')
data.hour.date1 = data.frame(table(data.jokowi.date1$hour))
colnames(data.hour.date1) = c('Hour','Total.Tweets')
# 创建数据可视化
ggplot(data.hour.date1)+
  geom_bar(aes(x = Hour,
               y = Total.Tweets,
               fill = I('blue')),
           stat = 'identity',
           alpha = 0.75,
           show.legend = FALSE)+
  geom_hline(yintercept = mean(data.hour.date1$Total.Tweets),
             col = I('black'),
             size = 1)+
  geom_text(aes(fontface = 'italic',
                label = paste('Average:',
ceiling(mean(data.hour.date1$Total.Tweets)),
                              'Tweets per hour'),
                x = 8,
                y = mean(data.hour.date1$Total.Tweets)+20),
            hjust = 'left',
            size = 4)+
  labs(title = 'Total Tweets per Hours - Joko Widodo',
       subtitle = '28 May 2019',
       caption = 'Twitter Crawling 28 - 29 May 2019')+
  xlab('Time of Day')+
  ylab('Total Tweets')+
  scale_fill_brewer(palette = 'Dark2')+
  theme_bw()
  
# TWEETS的条形图-PRABOWO SUBIANTO
data.prabowo.df$created = ymd_hms(data.prabowo.df$created,
                                  tz = 'Asia/Jakarta')
                                  
# 另一种制作“date”和“hour”变量的方法
data.prabowo.df$date = date(data.prabowo.df$created)
data.prabowo.df$hour = hour(data.prabowo.df$created)

# 日期2019-05-28
data.prabowo.date1 = subset(x = data.prabowo.df,
                            date == '2019-05-28')
data.hour.date1 = data.frame(table(data.prabowo.date1$hour))
colnames(data.hour.date1) = c('Hour','Total.Tweets')

# 日期 2019-05-29
data.prabowo.date2 = subset(x = data.prabowo.df,
                            date == '2019-05-29')
data.hour.date2 = data.frame(table(data.prabowo.date2$hour))
colnames(data.hour.date2) = c('Hour','Total.Tweets')
data.hour.date3 = rbind(data.hour.date1,data.hour.date2)
data.hour.date3$Date = c(rep(x = '2019-05-28',
                             len = nrow(data.hour.date1)),
                         rep(x = '2019-05-29',
                             len = nrow(data.hour.date2)))
data.hour.date3$Labels = c(letters,'A','B')
data.hour.date3$Hour = as.character(data.hour.date3$Hour)
data.hour.date3$Hour = as.numeric(data.hour.date3$Hour)

# 数据预处理
for (i in 1:nrow(data.hour.date3)) {
  if (i%%2 == 0) {
    data.hour.date3[i,'Hour'] = ''
  }
  if (i%%2 == 1) {
    data.hour.date3[i,'Hour'] = data.hour.date3[i,'Hour']
  }
}
data.hour.date3$Hour = as.factor(data.hour.date3$Hour)

# 数据可视化
ggplot(data.hour.date3)+
  geom_bar(aes(x = Labels,
               y = Total.Tweets,
               fill = Date),
           stat = 'identity',
           alpha = 0.75,
           show.legend = TRUE)+
  geom_hline(yintercept = mean(data.hour.date3$Total.Tweets),
             col = I('black'),
             size = 1)+
  geom_text(aes(fontface = 'italic',
                label = paste('Average:',
ceiling(mean(data.hour.date3$Total.Tweets)),
                              'Tweets per hour'),
                x = 5,
                y = mean(data.hour.date3$Total.Tweets)+6),
            hjust = 'left',
            size = 3.8)+
  scale_x_discrete(limits = data.hour.date3$Labels,
                   labels = data.hour.date3$Hour)+
  labs(title = 'Total Tweets per Hours - Prabowo Subianto',
       subtitle = '28 - 29 May 2019',
       caption = 'Twitter Crawling 28 - 29 May 2019')+
  xlab('Time of Day')+
  ylab('Total Tweets')+
  ylim(c(0,100))+
  theme_bw()+
  theme(legend.position = 'bottom',
        legend.title = element_blank())+
  scale_fill_brewer(palette = 'Dark2')

R语言进行Twitter数据可视化

根据图1,我们可以得出结论,通过数据抓取(关键字“Jokow Widodo”和“Prabowo Subianto”)得到的tweet数量并不相似,即使在同一日期。

例如,在图1(左)中,从视觉上看,对于关键字为“Joko Widodo”的推文,仅在2019年5月28日03:00–17:00 WIB期间获得。而在图1(右图)中,我们得出的结论是,在2019年5月28日至29日12:00-23:59 WIB(2019年5月28日)和00:00-15:00 WIB(2019年5月29日)期间获得的关键词为“Prabowo Subianto”的推文。

# 2019-05-28的推特
ggplot(data.hour.date1)+
  geom_bar(aes(x = Hour,
               y = Total.Tweets,
               fill = I('red')),
           stat = 'identity',
           alpha = 0.75,
           show.legend = FALSE)+
  geom_hline(yintercept = mean(data.hour.date1$Total.Tweets),
             col = I('black'),
             size = 1)+
  geom_text(aes(fontface = 'italic',
                label = paste('Average:',
ceiling(mean(data.hour.date1$Total.Tweets)),
                              'Tweets per hour'),
                x = 6.5,
                y = mean(data.hour.date1$Total.Tweets)+5),
            hjust = 'left',
            size = 4)+
  labs(title = 'Total Tweets per Hours - Prabowo Subianto',
       subtitle = '28 May 2019',
       caption = 'Twitter Crawling 28 - 29 May 2019')+
  xlab('Time of Day')+
  ylab('Total Tweets')+
  ylim(c(0,100))+
  theme_bw()+
  scale_fill_brewer(palette = 'Dark2')
  
# 2019-05-29的推特
ggplot(data.hour.date2)+
  geom_bar(aes(x = Hour,
               y = Total.Tweets,
               fill = I('red')),
           stat = 'identity',
           alpha = 0.75,
           show.legend = FALSE)+
  geom_hline(yintercept = mean(data.hour.date2$Total.Tweets),
             col = I('black'),
             size = 1)+
  geom_text(aes(fontface = 'italic',
                label = paste('Average:',
ceiling(mean(data.hour.date2$Total.Tweets)),
                              'Tweets per hour'),
                x = 1,
                y = mean(data.hour.date2$Total.Tweets)+6),
            hjust = 'left',
            size = 4)+
  labs(title = 'Total Tweets per Hours - Prabowo Subianto',
       subtitle = '29 May 2019',
       caption = 'Twitter Crawling 28 - 29 May 2019')+
  xlab('Time of Day')+
  ylab('Total Tweets')+
  ylim(c(0,100))+
  theme_bw()+
  scale_fill_brewer(palette = 'Dark2')

R语言进行Twitter数据可视化

根据图2,我们得到了使用关键字“Joko Widodo”和“Prabowo Subianto”的用户之间的显著差异。关键词为“Joko Widodo”的tweet在某个特定时间(07:00–09:00 WIB)谈论Joko Widodo往往非常激烈,08:00 WIB的tweet数量最多。它有348条推文。然而,在2019年5月28日至29日期间,关键词为“Prabowo Subianto”的推文往往会不断地谈论Prabowo Subianto。2019年5月28日至29日,每小时上传关键词为“Prabowo Subianto”的推文平均为36条。

# JOKO WIDODO
df.score.1 = subset(senti.jokowi,class == c('Negative','Positive'))
colnames(df.score.1) = c('Score','Text','Sentiment')
# Data viz
ggplot(df.score.1)+
  geom_density(aes(x = Score,
                   fill = Sentiment),
               alpha = 0.75)+
  xlim(c(-11,11))+
  labs(title = 'Density Plot of Sentiment Scores',
       subtitle = 'Joko Widodo',
       caption = 'Twitter Crawling 28 - 29 May 2019')+
  xlab('Score')+ 
  ylab('Density')+
  theme_bw()+
  scale_fill_brewer(palette = 'Dark2')+
  theme(legend.position = 'bottom',
        legend.title = element_blank())
        
# PRABOWO SUBIANTO
df.score.2 = subset(senti.prabowo,class == c('Negative','Positive'))
colnames(df.score.2) = c('Score','Text','Sentiment')
ggplot(df.score.2)+
  geom_density(aes(x = Score,
                   fill = Sentiment),
               alpha = 0.75)+
  xlim(c(-11,11))+
  labs(title = 'Density Plot of Sentiment Scores',
       subtitle = 'Prabowo Subianto',
       caption = 'Twitter Crawling 28 - 29 May 2019')+
  xlab('Density')+ 
  ylab('Score')+
  theme_bw()+
  scale_fill_brewer(palette = 'Dark2')+
  theme(legend.position = 'bottom',
        legend.title = element_blank())

R语言进行Twitter数据可视化

图3是2019年5月28日至29日以“Joko Widodo”和“Prabowo Subianto”为关键词的多条推文的条形图。由图3(左)可以得出,Twitter用户在19:00-23:59 WIB上谈论Prabowo Subianto的频率较低。这是由于印尼人的休息时间造成的。然而,这些带有主题的推文总是在午夜更新,因为有的用户居住在国外,有的用户仍然活跃。然后,用户在04:00 WIB开始活动,在07:00 WIB达到高峰,然后下降,直到12:00 WIB再次上升。

# JOKO WIDODO
df.senti.score.1 = data.frame(table(senti.jokowi$score))
colnames(df.senti.score.1) = c('Score','Freq')
# 数据预处理
df.senti.score.1$Score = as.character(df.senti.score.1$Score)
df.senti.score.1$Score = as.numeric(df.senti.score.1$Score)
Score1 = df.senti.score.1$Score
sign(df.senti.score.1[1,1])
for (i in 1:nrow(df.senti.score.1)) {
  sign.row = sign(df.senti.score.1[i,'Score'])
  for (j in 1:ncol(df.senti.score.1)) {
    df.senti.score.1[i,j] = df.senti.score.1[i,j] * sign.row
  }
}
df.senti.score.1$Label = c(letters[1:nrow(df.senti.score.1)])
df.senti.score.1$Sentiment = ifelse(df.senti.score.1$Freq < 0,
                                    'Negative','Positive')
df.senti.score.1$Score1 = Score1
# 数据可视化
ggplot(df.senti.score.1)+
  geom_bar(aes(x = Label,
               y = Freq,
               fill = Sentiment),
           stat = 'identity',
           show.legend = FALSE)+
  # 积极情感
  geom_hline(yintercept = mean(abs(df.senti.score.1[which(df.senti.score.1$Sentiment == 'Positive'),'Freq'])),
             col = I('black'),
             size = 1)+
  geom_text(aes(fontface = 'italic',
                label = paste('Average Freq:',
ceiling(mean(abs(df.senti.score.1[which(df.senti.score.1$Sentiment == 'Positive'),'Freq'])))),
                x = 10,
                y = mean(abs(df.senti.score.1[which(df.senti.score.1$Sentiment == 'Positive'),'Freq']))+30),
            hjust = 'right',
            size = 4)+
  # 消极情感
  geom_hline(yintercept = mean(df.senti.score.1[which(df.senti.score.1$Sentiment == 'Negative'),'Freq']),
             col = I('black'),
             size = 1)+
  geom_text(aes(fontface = 'italic',
                label = paste('Average Freq:',
ceiling(mean(abs(df.senti.score.1[which(df.senti.score.1$Sentiment == 'Negative'),'Freq'])))),
                x = 5,
                y = mean(df.senti.score.1[which(df.senti.score.1$Sentiment == 'Negative'),'Freq'])-15),
            hjust = 'left',
            size = 4)+
  labs(title = 'Barplot of Sentiments',
       subtitle = 'Joko Widodo',
       caption = 'Twitter Crawling 28 - 29 May 2019')+
  xlab('Score')+
  scale_x_discrete(limits = df.senti.score.1$Label,
                   labels = df.senti.score.1$Score1)+
  theme_bw()+
  scale_fill_brewer(palette = 'Dark2')

# PRABOWO SUBIANTO
df.senti.score.2 = data.frame(table(senti.prabowo$score))
colnames(df.senti.score.2) = c('Score','Freq')
# 数据预处理
df.senti.score.2$Score = as.character(df.senti.score.2$Score)
df.senti.score.2$Score = as.numeric(df.senti.score.2$Score)
Score2 = df.senti.score.2$Score
sign(df.senti.score.2[1,1])
for (i in 1:nrow(df.senti.score.2)) {
  sign.row = sign(df.senti.score.2[i,'Score'])
  for (j in 1:ncol(df.senti.score.2)) {
    df.senti.score.2[i,j] = df.senti.score.2[i,j] * sign.row
  }
}
df.senti.score.2$Label = c(letters[1:nrow(df.senti.score.2)])
df.senti.score.2$Sentiment = ifelse(df.senti.score.2$Freq < 0,
                                    'Negative','Positive')
df.senti.score.2$Score1 = Score2
# 数据可视化
ggplot(df.senti.score.2)+
  geom_bar(aes(x = Label,
               y = Freq,
               fill = Sentiment),
           stat = 'identity',
           show.legend = FALSE)+
  # 积极情感
  geom_hline(yintercept = mean(abs(df.senti.score.2[which(df.senti.score.2$Sentiment == 'Positive'),'Freq'])),
             col = I('black'),
             size = 1)+
  geom_text(aes(fontface = 'italic',
                label = paste('Average Freq:',
ceiling(mean(abs(df.senti.score.2[which(df.senti.score.2$Sentiment == 'Positive'),'Freq'])))),
                x = 11,
                y = mean(abs(df.senti.score.2[which(df.senti.score.2$Sentiment == 'Positive'),'Freq']))+20),
            hjust = 'right',
            size = 4)+
  # 消极情感
  geom_hline(yintercept = mean(df.senti.score.2[which(df.senti.score.2$Sentiment == 'Negative'),'Freq']),
             col = I('black'),
             size = 1)+
  geom_text(aes(fontface = 'italic',
                label = paste('Average Freq:',
ceiling(mean(abs(df.senti.score.2[which(df.senti.score.2$Sentiment == 'Negative'),'Freq'])))),
                x = 9,
                y = mean(df.senti.score.2[which(df.senti.score.2$Sentiment == 'Negative'),'Freq'])-10),
            hjust = 'left',
            size = 4)+
  labs(title = 'Barplot of Sentiments',
       subtitle = 'Prabowo Subianto',
       caption = 'Twitter Crawling 28 - 29 May 2019')+
  xlab('Score')+
  scale_x_discrete(limits = df.senti.score.2$Label,
                   labels = df.senti.score.2$Score1)+
  theme_bw()+
  scale_fill_brewer(palette = 'Dark2')

R语言进行Twitter数据可视化

图4是包含关键字“Joko Widodo”和“Prabowo Subianto”的情感得分密度图。tweets的得分是由组成tweets的词根的平均得分得到的。因此,它的分数是针对每个词根给出的,其值介于-10到10之间。如果分数越小,那么微博中的负面情绪就越多,反之亦然。根据图4(左),可以得出结论,包含关键字“Joko Widodo”的推文的负面情绪在-10到-1之间,中间得分为-4。它也适用于积极的情绪(当然,有一个积极的分数)。根据图4(左)中的密度图,我们发现积极情绪的得分具有相当小的方差。因此,我们得出结论,对包含关键词“Joko Widodo”的微博的积极情绪并不是太多样化。

图4(右)显示了包含关键字“Prabowo Subianto”的情感得分密度图。它与图4(左)不同,因为图4(右)上的负面情绪在-8到-1之间。这意味着tweets没有太多负面情绪(tweets有负面情绪,但不够高)。此外,负面情绪得分的分布在4和1之间有两个峰值。然而,积极情绪从1到10不等。与图4(左)相比,图4(右)的积极情绪具有较高的方差,在3和10范围内有两个峰值。这表明,包含关键词“Prabowo Subianto”的微博具有很高的积极情绪。

# JOKO WIDODO
df.senti.3 = as.data.frame(table(senti.jokowi$class))
colnames(df.senti.3) = c('Sentiment','Freq')
# 数据预处理
df.pie.1 = df.senti.3
df.pie.1$Prop = df.pie.1$Freq/sum(df.pie.1$Freq)
df.pie.1 = df.pie.1 %>%
  arrange(desc(Sentiment)) %>%
  mutate(lab.ypos = cumsum(Prop) - 0.5*Prop)
# 数据可视化
ggplot(df.pie.1,
       aes(x = 2,
           y = Prop,
           fill = Sentiment))+
  geom_bar(stat = 'identity',
           col = 'white',
           alpha = 0.75,
           show.legend = TRUE)+
  coord_polar(theta = 'y', 
              start = 0)+
  geom_text(aes(y = lab.ypos,
                label = Prop),
            color = 'white',
            fontface = 'italic',
            size = 4)+
  labs(title = 'Piechart of Sentiments',
       subtitle = 'Joko Widodo',
       caption = 'Twitter Crawling 28 - 29 May 2019')+
  xlim(c(0.5,2.5))+
  theme_void()+
  scale_fill_brewer(palette = 'Dark2')+
  theme(legend.title = element_blank(),
        legend.position = 'right')
        
# PRABOWO SUBIANTO
df.senti.4 = as.data.frame(table(senti.prabowo$class))
colnames(df.senti.4) = c('Sentiment','Freq')
# 数据预处理
df.pie.2 = df.senti.4
df.pie.2$Prop = df.pie.2$Freq/sum(df.pie.2$Freq)
df.pie.2 = df.pie.2 %>%
  arrange(desc(Sentiment)) %>%
  mutate(lab.ypos = cumsum(Prop) - 0.5*Prop)
# 数据可视化
ggplot(df.pie.2,
       aes(x = 2,
           y = Prop,
           fill = Sentiment))+
  geom_bar(stat = 'identity',
           col = 'white',
           alpha = 0.75,
           show.legend = TRUE)+
  coord_polar(theta = 'y', 
              start = 0)+
  geom_text(aes(y = lab.ypos,
                label = Prop),
            color = 'white',
            fontface = 'italic',
            size = 4)+
  labs(title = 'Piechart of Sentiments',
       subtitle = 'Prabowo Subianto',
       caption = 'Twitter Crawling 28 - 29 May 2019')+
  xlim(c(0.5,2.5))+
  theme_void()+
  scale_fill_brewer(palette = 'Dark2')+
  theme(legend.title = element_blank(),
        legend.position = 'right')

R语言进行Twitter数据可视化

图5是推特的情绪得分汇总,这些微博被分为负面情绪、中性情绪和积极情绪。消极情绪是指得分低于零的情绪,中性是指分数等于零的情绪,积极情绪得分大于零。从图5可以看出,关键字为“Joko Widodo”的微博的负面情绪百分比低于关键字为“Prabowo Subianto”的tweet。有6.3%的差异。研究还发现,与关键词为Prabowo Subianto的微博相比,包含关键词“Joko Widodo”的微博具有更高的中性情绪和积极情绪。通过piechart的研究发现,与关键字为“Prabowo Subianto”的tweet相比,带有关键字“Joko Widodo”的tweet倾向于拥有更高比例的积极情绪。但是通过密度图发现,积极和消极情绪得分的分布表明,与“Joko Widodo”相比,包含关键字“Prabowo Subianto”的微博往往具有更高的情绪得分。它必须进行进一步的分析。

R语言进行Twitter数据可视化

图6显示了用户在2019年5月28-29日经常上传的tweet(关键词“Joko Widodo”和“Prabowo Subianto”)中的术语或单词。通过这个WordCloud可视化,可以找到热门话题,这些话题都是针对关键词进行讨论的。对于包含关键词“Joko Widodo”的tweet,我们发现术语“tuang”、“petisi”、“negara”、“aman”和“nusantara”是前五名,每个tweet出现的次数最多。然而,包含关键词“Joko Widodo”的tweet发现,“Prabowo”、“Subianto”、“kriminalisasi”、“selamat”和“dubai”是每个tweet中出现次数最多的前五个词。这间接地显示了以关键字“Prabowo Subianto”上传的tweet的模式,即:几乎可以肯定的是,每个上传的tweet都直接包含“Prabowo Subianto”的名称,而不是通过提及(@)。这是因为,在文本预处理中,提到(@)已被删除。

可以前往我的GitHub repo查找代码:https://github.com/audhiapril…

参考引用

[1] K. Borau, C. Ullrich, J. Feng, R. Shen. Microblogging for Language Learning: Using Twitter to Train Communicative and Cultural Competence (2009), Advances in Web-Based Learning — ICWL 2009, 8th International Conference, Aachen, Germany, August 19–21, 2009.

原文链接:https://towardsdatascience.co…

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