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腾讯云 K8S 集群实战 Service Mesh—Linkerd2 & Traefik2 部署 emojivoto 应用

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腾讯云 K8S 集群实战 Service Mesh—Linkerd2 & Traefik2 部署 emojivoto 应用

LinkerdKubernetes 的服务网格。 它通过为您提供运行时调试(runtime debugging)、可观察性(observability)、可靠性(reliability)和安全性(security),使运行服务更轻松、更安全 — 所有这些都不需要对您的代码进行任何更改。

服务网格是用于处理服务间通信的专用基础设施层。它负责通过包含现代云原生应用程序的复杂服务拓扑来可靠地传递请求。实际上,服务网格通常通过一组轻量级网络代理来实现,这些代理与应用程序代码一起部署,而不需要感知应用程序本身。— Willian Morgan Buoyant CEO

为什么我们需要 Service Mesh

  • What’s a service mesh? And why do I need one? 一文中做了详细的解释,这里不再赘述。拥抱云原生,微服务已进入 Service Mesh 时代。

为什么折腾 Linkerd2 而不是 Istio

  • Benchmarking Linkerd and Istio

部署环境

  • 腾讯云 TKE K8S 集群(或你自建的私有 K8S 集群)
  • CentOS 7.x

可先快速过一个官方上手教程,本文是基于此在腾讯云的实战详解。

  • 快速上手 Linkerd v2 Service Mesh(服务网格)
  • Getting Started

查看集群版本

kubectl version --short

Client Version: v1.16.9
Server Version: v1.16.9

Linkerd2 CLI 安装

首先我们需要下载并安装最新版本的 linkerd CLI。

我们直接进入 Linkerd2 版本发行页面,查看最新版:

这里我们下载 linkerd2-cli-edge-21.6.1-linux-amd64。

安装

wget -c https://github.com/linkerd/linkerd2/releases/download/edge-21.6.1/linkerd2-cli-edge-21.6.1-linux-amd64

mv linkerd2-cli-edge-21.6.1-linux-amd64 /usr/local/bin/linkerd

chmod 755 /usr/local/bin/linkerd

现在我们运行 linkerd,会看到如下信息:

Usage:
  linkerd [command]

Available Commands:
  check        Check the Linkerd installation for potential problems
  completion   Output shell completion code for the specified shell (bash, zsh or fish)
  diagnostics  Commands used to diagnose Linkerd components
  help         Help about any command
  identity     Display the certificate(s) of one or more selected pod(s)
  inject       Add the Linkerd proxy to a Kubernetes config
  install      Output Kubernetes configs to install Linkerd
  install-cni  Output Kubernetes configs to install Linkerd CNI
  jaeger       jaeger manages the jaeger extension of Linkerd service mesh
  multicluster Manages the multicluster setup for Linkerd
  profile      Output service profile config for Kubernetes
  repair       Output the secret/linkerd-config-overrides resource if it has been deleted
  uninject     Remove the Linkerd proxy from a Kubernetes config
  uninstall    Output Kubernetes resources to uninstall Linkerd control plane
  upgrade      Output Kubernetes configs to upgrade an existing Linkerd control plane
  version      Print the client and server version information
  viz          viz manages the linkerd-viz extension of Linkerd service mesh

Flags:
      --api-addr string            Override kubeconfig and communicate directly with the control plane at host:port (mostly for testing)
      --as string                  Username to impersonate for Kubernetes operations
      --as-group stringArray       Group to impersonate for Kubernetes operations
      --cni-namespace string       Namespace in which the Linkerd CNI plugin is installed (default "linkerd-cni")
      --context string             Name of the kubeconfig context to use
  -h, --help                       help for linkerd
      --kubeconfig string          Path to the kubeconfig file to use for CLI requests
  -L, --linkerd-namespace string   Namespace in which Linkerd is installed ($LINKERD_NAMESPACE) (default "linkerd")
      --verbose                    Turn on debug logging

Additional help topics:
  linkerd alpha        experimental subcommands for Linkerd

Use "linkerd [command] --help" for more information about a command.

安装 Linkerd2 控制平面

首先,我们需要验证下集群,使用 linkerd check --pre,正常会输出如下信息:

Linkerd core checks
===================

kubernetes-api
--------------
√ can initialize the client
√ can query the Kubernetes API

kubernetes-version
------------------
√ is running the minimum Kubernetes API version
√ is running the minimum kubectl version

pre-kubernetes-setup
--------------------
√ control plane namespace does not already exist
√ can create non-namespaced resources
√ can create ServiceAccounts
√ can create Services
√ can create Deployments
√ can create CronJobs
√ can create ConfigMaps
√ can create Secrets
√ can read Secrets
√ can read extension-apiserver-authentication configmap
√ no clock skew detected

pre-kubernetes-capability
-------------------------
√ has NET_ADMIN capability
√ has NET_RAW capability

linkerd-version
---------------
√ can determine the latest version
√ cli is up-to-date

Status check results are √

部署控制平面:

linkerd install | kubectl apply -f -

查看 linkerd 命名空间的 pod 部署情况:

kubectl get po -n linkerd

NAME                                      READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
linkerd-destination-6c6bf4fc4-282gd       3/3     Running   0          5m
linkerd-identity-7cd9998969-cvzc8         2/2     Running   0          5m
linkerd-proxy-injector-855b9b6747-r8pcz   2/2     Running   0          5m

同样,我们使用 linkerd check 检查一下。

ok, 接下来我们部署一些常用的扩展,增强我们控制平面的功能。

安装 Linkerd2 控制平面常用扩展

grafanaprometheusjaeger 等的部署(针对 Linkerd 2 的相关指标)

使用如下命令:

linkerd viz install | kubectl apply -f - # on-cluster metrics stack

kubectl get po -n linkerd-viz #审查 namespace, 直到所 pod 都 ready

# grafana-5659477d88-txq5b        0/2     PodInitializing   0          14m
# metrics-api-6fcb849dc-k9sw5     2/2     Running           0          14m
# prometheus-798d8d4698-4x8h2     2/2     Running           0          14m
# tap-f5984d7f7-fkpf9             0/2     PodInitializing   0          14m
# tap-injector-6b455dd64b-2c82n   0/2     PodInitializing   0          14m
# web-657dbffb8f-7d2gr            0/2     PodInitializing   0          14m

如果出现某一个 pod 出现错误,我们可以通过 kubectl describe po 来获取详细错误信息,如:

kubectl describe po grafana-5659477d88-txq5b -n linkerd-viz

比如说,我这里如下镜像就被卡住了(腾讯云):

cr.l5d.io/linkerd/grafana:edge-21.6.1
cr.l5d.io/linkerd/tap:edge-21.6.1
cr.l5d.io/linkerd/web:edge-21.6.1

大家可以(连接互联网)手动拉取。

同样,我们再部署两个可选的扩展。

部署 jaeger

## optional
linkerd jaeger install | kubectl apply -f - # Jaeger collector and UI

kubectl get po -n linkerd-jaeger #审查 namespace
# OR:
# docker pull cr.l5d.io/linkerd/jaeger-webhook:edge-21.6.1
# docker pull jaegertracing/all-in-one:1.19.2

部署 multicluster

linkerd multicluster install | kubectl apply -f - # multi-cluster components
kubectl get po -n linkerd-multicluster

# 果然报错了
linkerd-gateway-bcb5888c5-ws6wz   1/2     ErrImagePull   0          21s

查看报错信息:

kubectl describe po linkerd-gateway-bcb5888c5-ws6wz -n linkerd-multicluster
# Normal   BackOff    21s (x5 over 2m13s)  kubelet, k8s-master-01  Back-off pulling image "gcr.io/google_containers/pause"
# Warning  Failed     21s (x5 over 2m13s)  kubelet, k8s-master-01  Error: ImagePullBackOff

很明显(gcr.io/google_containers/pause),我们需要连接互联网(具体怎么做,太多教程了,这里不讨论)。

还有一个问题比较棘手的是,这里即使 gcr.io/google_containers/pause 已经存在于本地,部署时还是回去 gcr.io 拉取。

所以,下面提供另一种方式来弄(没连外网的情况下)。

使用 kustomize 解决 linkerd-gateway (腾讯云部署)不成功的问题

kustomize 如何安装,大家自行查看 https://kustomize.io。

首先,导出 linkerd multicluster 部署 yaml 档。

linkerd multicluster install > linkerd-multicluster.yaml

然后,我们给它打个补丁patch-linkerd-multicluster.yaml

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  annotations:
    linkerd.io/created-by: linkerd/cli edge-21.6.1
  labels:
    app.kubernetes.io/name: gateway
    app.kubernetes.io/part-of: Linkerd
    app.kubernetes.io/version: edge-21.6.1
    linkerd.io/control-plane-component: gateway
    app: linkerd-gateway
    linkerd.io/extension: multicluster
  name: linkerd-gateway
  namespace: linkerd-multicluster
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: linkerd-gateway
  template:
    metadata:
      annotations:
        linkerd.io/created-by: linkerd/cli edge-21.6.1
        linkerd.io/inject: enabled
        config.linkerd.io/proxy-require-identity-inbound-ports: "4191,4143"
        config.linkerd.io/enable-gateway: "true"
      labels:
        app: linkerd-gateway
    spec:
      containers:
        - name: pause
          image: ccr.ccs.tencentyun.com/cloud-native/google-pause
      serviceAccountName: linkerd-gateway

ccr.ccs.tencentyun.com/cloud-native/google-pause,这是笔者上传到腾讯云的公开镜像。

新建 kustomization.yaml

resources:
- linkerd-multicluster.yaml
patchesStrategicMerge:
- patch-linkerd-multicluster.yaml

使用 kustomize 重新部署:

kustomize build . | kubectl apply -f -

重新查看一下:

kubectl get po -n linkerd-multicluster
# linkerd-gateway-6c8dc7bb49-6tghc   2/2     Running   0          92s

完美解决。

使用 Traefik Ingressroute 导出 linkerd-web 管理面板

关于 traefik v2 的部署,这里不做赘述。

使用 kustomizelinkerd viz 部署进行更新

我这里使用的域名是 linkerd-web.hacker-linner.com

导出 yaml 档:

linkerd viz install > linkerd-viz.yaml

打补丁,patch-linkerd-viz-web.yaml

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  annotations:
    linkerd.io/created-by: linkerd/helm edge-21.6.1
  labels:
    linkerd.io/extension: viz
    app.kubernetes.io/name: web
    app.kubernetes.io/part-of: Linkerd
    app.kubernetes.io/version: edge-21.6.1
    component: web
    namespace: linkerd-viz
  name: web
  namespace: linkerd-viz
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      linkerd.io/extension: viz
      component: web
      namespace: linkerd-viz
  template:
    metadata:
      annotations:
        linkerd.io/created-by: linkerd/helm edge-21.6.1
      labels:
        linkerd.io/extension: viz
        component: web
        namespace: linkerd-viz
    spec:
      nodeSelector:
        beta.kubernetes.io/os: linux
      containers:
      - args:
        - -linkerd-metrics-api-addr=metrics-api.linkerd-viz.svc.cluster.local:8085
        - -cluster-domain=cluster.local
        - -grafana-addr=grafana.linkerd-viz.svc.cluster.local:3000
        - -controller-namespace=linkerd
        - -viz-namespace=linkerd-viz
        - -log-level=info
        - -enforced-host=^(linkerd-web.hacker-linner.com|localhost|127.0.0.1|web.linkerd-viz.svc.cluster.local|web.linkerd-viz.svc|[::1])(:d+)?$
        image: cr.l5d.io/linkerd/web:edge-21.6.1
        imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
        livenessProbe:
          httpGet:
            path: /ping
            port: 9994
          initialDelaySeconds: 10
        name: web
        ports:
        - containerPort: 8084
          name: http
        - containerPort: 9994
          name: admin-http
        readinessProbe:
          failureThreshold: 7
          httpGet:
            path: /ready
            port: 9994
        resources:
        securityContext:
          runAsUser: 2103
      serviceAccountName: web

更新 kustomization.yaml

resources:
- linkerd-viz.yaml
- linkerd-multicluster.yaml
patchesStrategicMerge:
- patch-linkerd-viz-web.yaml
- patch-linkerd-multicluster.yaml

重新部署

kustomize build . | kubectl apply -f -

设置 Ingressroute & Basic Auth

ingressroute-viz.yaml

apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  name: linkerd-authsecret
  namespace: linkerd-viz
type: Opaque
stringData:
  users: # 这里使用 htpasswd -nb 进行设置
---
apiVersion: traefik.containo.us/v1alpha1
kind: Middleware
metadata:
  name: linkerd-basic-auth
  namespace: linkerd-viz
spec:
  basicAuth:
    secret: linkerd-authsecret
---
apiVersion: traefik.containo.us/v1alpha1
kind: Middleware
metadata:
  name: l5d-header-middleware
  namespace: linkerd-viz
spec:
  headers:
    customRequestHeaders:
      l5d-dst-override: "web.linkerd-viz.svc.cluster.local:8084"
---
apiVersion: traefik.containo.us/v1alpha1
kind: IngressRoute
metadata:
  name: linkerd-web-ingress-route
  namespace: linkerd-viz
spec:
  entryPoints:
    - websecure
  tls:
    secretName: hacker-linner-cert-tls
  routes:
    - match: Host(`linkerd-web.hacker-linner.com`)
      kind: Rule
      services:
        - name: web
          port: 8084
      middlewares:
        - name: l5d-header-middleware
        - name: linkerd-basic-auth

部署:

kubectl apply -f ingressroute-viz.yaml

腾讯云 K8S 集群实战 Service Mesh—Linkerd2 & Traefik2 部署 emojivoto 应用

部署 emojivoto

运行如下命令:

curl -sL https://run.linkerd.io/emojivoto.yml 
  | kubectl apply -f 

审查部署:

kubectl get po -n  emojivoto
# OR
# docker pull docker.l5d.io/buoyantio/emojivoto-emoji-svc:v11
# docker pull docker.l5d.io/buoyantio/emojivoto-web:v11
# docker pull docker.l5d.io/buoyantio/emojivoto-voting-svc:v11

emoji-6b776684f5-nnflg      1/1     Running   0          6m4s
vote-bot-64695c4dc6-jn8ln   1/1     Running   0          6m4s
voting-7778876bdb-kdvsx     1/1     Running   0          6m4s
web-6f8d774656-9dsw7        1/1     Running   0          6m4s

设置 Ingressroute

这里是:https://emojivoto.hacker-linner.com

emojivoto-ingressroute.yaml

apiVersion: traefik.containo.us/v1alpha1
kind: IngressRoute
metadata:
  name: emojivoto-web-ingress-route
  namespace: emojivoto
spec:
  entryPoints:
    - websecure
  tls:
    secretName: hacker-linner-cert-tls
  routes:
    - match: Host(`emojivoto.hacker-linner.com`)
      kind: Rule
      services:
        - name: web-svc
          port: 80

腾讯云 K8S 集群实战 Service Mesh—Linkerd2 & Traefik2 部署 emojivoto 应用

Service Mesh(Linkerd) 注入

添加 Linkerdemojivoto

kubectl get -n emojivoto deploy -o yaml 
  | linkerd inject - 
  | kubectl apply -f -

审查一下是否一切正常:

linkerd -n emojivoto check --proxy

回到面板查看 emojivoto

腾讯云 K8S 集群实战 Service Mesh—Linkerd2 & Traefik2 部署 emojivoto 应用

腾讯云 K8S 集群实战 Service Mesh—Linkerd2 & Traefik2 部署 emojivoto 应用

完美搞定,一切正常。

最后看一下 Grafana 面板:

腾讯云 K8S 集群实战 Service Mesh—Linkerd2 & Traefik2 部署 emojivoto 应用

Refs

  • What’s a service mesh? And why do I need one?
  • 快速上手 Linkerd v2 Service Mesh(服务网格)
  • Getting Started
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