sulphuric|hydrochloric|nitric|carbolic|citric|lactic|nucleic|amino acid: 硫|盐|硝|碳|柠檬|乳|核|氨基酸 王水是意译: Aqua regia is a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acid concentrations, usually one portion of the former by volume to three portions of the latter. The alchemists gave this mixture its name (literally, “royal water”) due to its ability to dissolve gold and other so-called noble metals. alkali/base: 碱, salt: 盐/食用盐; ammonia: 氨水
Vinegar comes from the French phrase ‘vin aigre’, which means sour wine. The wine tastes vinegary. “Sour as vinegar” is an idiom. Vinegar is sour. Don’t eat it recklessly.
Yoghurt (in Turkish yoghurut – curdled milk) is the most well-known and popular fermented dairy product. It is produced with the help of selected lactic acid bacteria. Kefir [酸牛乳酒] is a fermented milk similar to yoghurt. It is one of the oldest cultured milk products in existence, enjoying widespread popularity in Russia and the Caucasus [高加索]. The word kefir comes from a language of the Caucasus, where it has been drunk since at least ancient times. Soured milk, similar to home-produced milk, is produced in dairy industrial plants by adding a culture of several types of lactic acid bacteria, the main one being Streptococcus lactis, to pasteurised milk. Sour cream’s history dates back to the first half of the 20th century, and is associated with the cooking traditions of Eastern Europe, Germany, Ukraine and Russia. Originally, making sour cream involved allowing fresh cream to sour naturally. Today, commercial sour cream can contain the addition of lactic acid, gelatin or guar gum. Both yoghurt and soured milk contain up to three bacteria, although the most prominent among the three is traditional kefir, as in addition to more than a hundred microorganisms, it also contains yeast. Kefir is considered to be the undisputed king of fermented dairy products.
There are three basic ways to prepare lactic acid products:
1. natural acidification of milk, triggered by the presence of microorganisms present in the air and milk, especially in the summer;
2. induced fermentation of milk in the industrial production of soured milk and yoghurt, triggered by different cultures e.g. Streptococcus lactis, Lactobacillus delbrückii spp. Bulgaricus and related lactic acid bacteria;
3. fermentation of milk triggered by live kefir grains.
Probiotic yoghurt has grown in popularity in recent years. The main difference between regular and probiotic yoghurts is mainly the bacteria that they contain. The probiotic cultures most commonly found in probiotic yoghurt are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus casei, of which only one type is usually subsequently added to the yoghurt.
Lemons are acid fruits. 词典没明确说acid不能做表语，不过Some oranges have an acid flavor.好像更顺些。acid: sharp sour，尖酸。“真金不怕火炼”, 英语有acid test. 王水是浓盐酸与浓硝酸的混合物，能溶解黄金。The acid test of a teacher is ‘Would you teach your own children?’ It’s an acid comment. The remark is acid. There’s something acid in her tone.
acidity of the stomach: 胃酸(稀盐酸)过多。acid rain: 酸雨。不能说acid一定比sour酸，也许acid偏物质构成，sour偏味觉体验。acid的词源是: ‘to be sour’
mellow: 香醇的; luscious: 香甜的; My mouth is full of saliva. Salted garlic peanuts are savory. Monica’s cheesecake is mealy (dry and powdery).
六级/考研单词: sulfur, portion, latter, literal, dissolve, noble, vinegar, sour, idiom, reckless, yoghurt, dairy, bacteria, lotion, gum, prominent, trigger, induce, grain, differentiate, regulate, lemon, flavor, comment, peanut, powder