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开发技术 开发技术 2022-08-02 次浏览

In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals [a special court or committee that is appointed to deal with particular problems.] by virtue of [because of] being stated in written opinions. The defining characteristic of "common law" is that it arises [appear; originate] as precedent. In cases where the parties disagree on what the law is, a common law court looks to past precedential decisions of relevant courts, and synthesizes [combine] the principles of those past cases as applicable to the current facts. If a similar dispute has been resolved in the past, the court is usually bound to follow the reasoning used in the prior decision. If, however, the court finds that the current dispute is fundamentally distinct from all previous cases, and legislative statutes are either silent or ambiguous on the question, judges have the authority and duty to resolve the issue. The court states an opinion that gives reasons for the decision, and those reasons agglomerate [become collected into a mass ] with past decisions as precedent to bind future judges and litigants. Common law, as the body of law made by judges, stands in contrast to and on equal footing [basis
] with statutes which are adopted through the legislative process, and regulations which are promulgated [announce officially] by the executive branch. Stare decisis [<拉丁语>照章办事], the principle that cases should be decided according to consistent principled rules so that similar facts will yield similar results, lies at the heart of all common law systems.

The common law—so named because it was "common" to all the king's courts across England - originated in the practices of the courts of the English kings in the centuries following the Norman Conquest in 1066. The British Empire later spread the English legal system to its far flung [fling的过去式] colonies, many of which retain the common law system today. These "common law systems" are legal systems that give great weight to judicial precedent, and to the style of reasoning inherited from the English legal system. Today, one-third of the world's population lives in common law jurisdictions or in systems mixed with civil law.

Statutory law or statute law is written law passed by a body of legislature. This is as opposed to oral or customary law; or regulatory law promulgated by the executive or common law of the judiciary. Statutes may originate with national, state legislatures or local municipalities.


Common time is another way of notating and referring to the 4/4 time signature, which indicates that there are four quarter note beats per measure. It may be written in its fraction form of 4/4 or with a c-shaped semicircle.

In music notation [乐谱], the time signature [拍号] is placed at the beginning of the staff [五线谱] after the clef [谱号] and the key signature. The time signature indicates how many beats there are in each measure, and what the value of the beat is.

Today, the common time symbol represents the simplest duple time in music notation—and perhaps the most frequently used with pop musicians—which is the earlier mentioned 4/4 time signature. Duple time is where we will have two main beats in a bar [小节(线)].

Common Time in Music Notation

六级/考研单词: judicial, synthesis, resolve, bind, legislate, statute, ambiguous, issue, regulate, accord, consistent, yield, illicit, fling, colony, jurisdiction, oral, judiciary, nationwide, fraction, workforce, seldom, pop

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