A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property, possessions, and resources in common. In some communes, the people also share common work, income, or assets.
In addition to the communal economy, consensus decision-making, non-hierarchical structures and ecological living have become important core principles for many communes. There are many contemporary intentional communities all over the world, a list of which can be found at the Foundation for Intentional Community (FIC).
The central characteristics of communes, or core principles that define communes, have been expressed in various forms over the years. Before 1840 such communities were known as "communist and socialist settlements [居住点]"; by 1860, they were also called "communitarian" and by around 1920 the term "intentional community" had been added to the vernacular [the language spoken in a particular area or by a particular group] of some theorists [理论家]. The term "communitarian" was invented by the Suffolk-born radical John Goodwyn Barmby, subsequently a Unitarian [上帝一位论派] minister [牧师]. The word "trinity" is a term used to denote the Christian doctrine that God exists as a unity of three distinct, simultaneous persons: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
At the start of the 1970s, The New Communes author Ron E. Roberts classified communes as a subclass of a larger category of Utopias [乌托邦]. He listed three main characteristics. Communes of this period tended to develop their own characteristics of theory though, so while many strived [奋斗] for variously expressed forms of egalitarianism [平等主义], Roberts' list should never be read as typical. Roberts' three listed items were: first, egalitarianism – that communes specifically rejected hierarchy or graduations [刻度; 分度] of social status as being necessary to social order. Second, human scale – that members of some communes saw the scale [规模] of society as it was then organized [其时被组织的] as being too industrialized (or factory sized) and therefore unsympathetic [not willing to support] to human dimensions. And third, that communes were consciously anti-bureaucratic. The term human dimensions refers to how and why humans value natural resources, how humans want resources managed, and how humans affect or are affected by natural resources management decisions.
Twenty five years later, Dr. Bill Metcalf, in his edited book Shared Visions, Shared Lives defined communes as having the following core principles: the importance of the group as opposed to the nuclear family unit [核心家庭单位], a "common purse", a collective household, group decision making in general and intimate affairs. Sharing everyday life and facilities, a commune is an idealized form of family, being a new sort of "primary group" (generally with fewer than 20 people although again there are outstanding examples of much larger communes or communes that experienced episodes [经历; 事件] with much larger populations). Commune members have emotional bonds to the whole group rather than to any sub-group, and the commune is experienced with emotions which go beyond just social collectivity. In sociology, nuclear family is the family considered as mother, father and children only, and not including any less close relations.
With the simple definition of a commune as an intentional community with 100% income sharing, the online directory of the Fellowship for Intentional Community lists 222 communes worldwide (28 January 2019). Some of these are religious institutions such as abbeys and monasteries. Others are based in anthroposophic philosophy, including Camphill villages that provide support for the education, employment, and daily lives of adults and children with developmental disabilities, mental health problems or other special needs. Many communes are part of the New Age movement.
Anthropology [人类学] is the scientific study of people, society, and culture. Anthroposophy is a human oriented spiritual philosophy that reflects and speaks to the basic deep spiritual questions of humanity, to our basic artistic needs, to the need to relate to the world out of a scientific attitude of mind, and to the need to develop a relation to the world in complete freedom and based on completely individual judgments and decisions. What is anthroposophy?
The New Age (NAM) movement has many sub-divisions, but it is generally a collection of Eastern-influenced metaphysical thought systems, a conglomeration [a group of different things gathered together] of theologies [神学; 宗教学], hopes, and expectations held together with an eclectic [兼收并蓄的] teaching of salvation, of "correct thinking," and "correct knowledge.". What is the New Age Movement?
Metaphysics [形而上学; 玄学] is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of existence, truth and knowledge.
meta-: 1. beyond or at a higher level; 2. of change
Metadata is data about data. In other words, it's information that's used to describe the data that's contained in something like a web page, document, or file. Another way to think of metadata is as a short explanation or summary of what the data is. 比如：
<meta name="description" content="免费的 web 技术教程。"/> HTML 5 <meta> 标签
Many cultures naturally practice communal or tribal living, and would not designate their way of life as a planned 'commune' per se [by itself], though their living situation may have many characteristics of a commune.
per se: used when you are talking about one thing considered on its own, rather than in connection with other things. e.g. The drug is not harmful per se, but is dangerous when taken with alcohol. 比如头孢和甲硝锉类药物。
六级/考研单词: commune, seldom, consensus, contemporary, socialism, radical, author, classify, hierarchy, necessity, thereby, dimension, tertiary, affection, edit, wallet, collective, intimate, episode, sociology, offline, directory, fellow, secular, educate, heal, orient, shallow, humane, salvation, data, web, summary, designate, situate