• 欢迎光临~

实验6:开源控制器实践——RYU

开发技术 开发技术 2022-10-15 次浏览

实验6:开源控制器实践——RYU

一、实验要求

(一)基本要求

1.搭建下图所示SDN拓扑,协议使用Open Flow 1.0,并连接Ryu控制器。
实验6:开源控制器实践——RYU
实验6:开源控制器实践——RYU
实验6:开源控制器实践——RYU

2.阅读Ryu文档的The First Application一节,运行当中的L2Switch,h1 ping h2或h3,在目标主机使用 tcpdump 验证L2Switch,分析L2Switch和POX的Hub模块有何不同。
L2Switch.py

from ryu.base import app_manager
from ryu.controller import ofp_event
from ryu.controller.handler import MAIN_DISPATCHER
from ryu.controller.handler import set_ev_cls
from ryu.ofproto import ofproto_v1_0

class L2Switch(app_manager.RyuApp):
    OFP_VERSIONS = [ofproto_v1_0.OFP_VERSION]

    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        super(L2Switch, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)

    @set_ev_cls(ofp_event.EventOFPPacketIn, MAIN_DISPATCHER)
    def packet_in_handler(self, ev):
        msg = ev.msg
        dp = msg.datapath
        ofp = dp.ofproto
        ofp_parser = dp.ofproto_parser

        actions = [ofp_parser.OFPActionOutput(ofp.OFPP_FLOOD)]

        data = None
        if msg.buffer_id == ofp.OFP_NO_BUFFER:
             data = msg.data

        out = ofp_parser.OFPPacketOut(
            datapath=dp, buffer_id=msg.buffer_id, in_port=msg.in_port,
            actions=actions, data = data)
        dp.send_msg(out)


实验6:开源控制器实践——RYU

  • h1 ping h2
    实验6:开源控制器实践——RYU

  • h1 ping h3
    实验6:开源控制器实践——RYU

  • 查看下发流表
    实验6:开源控制器实践——RYU

结论:RYU的L2Switch模块和POX的Hub模块都采用洪泛转发,但不同之处在于:可以在pox的Hub模块运行时查看流表,而无法在ryu的L2Switch模块运行时查看到流表。

3.编程修改L2Switch.py,另存为L2032002441.py,使之和POX的Hub模块的变得一致。
L2032002428.py

from ryu.base import app_manager
from ryu.ofproto import ofproto_v1_3
from ryu.controller import ofp_event
from ryu.controller.handler import MAIN_DISPATCHER, CONFIG_DISPATCHER
from ryu.controller.handler import set_ev_cls
 
 
class hub(app_manager.RyuApp):
    OFP_VERSIONS = [ofproto_v1_3.OFP_VERSION]
 
    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        super(hub, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)
 
    @set_ev_cls(ofp_event.EventOFPSwitchFeatures, CONFIG_DISPATCHER)
    def switch_feathers_handler(self, ev):
        datapath = ev.msg.datapath
        ofproto = datapath.ofproto
        ofp_parser = datapath.ofproto_parser
 
        # install flow table-miss flow entry
        match = ofp_parser.OFPMatch()
        actions = [ofp_parser.OFPActionOutput(ofproto.OFPP_CONTROLLER, ofproto.OFPCML_NO_BUFFER)]
        # 1OUTPUT PORT, 2BUFF IN SWITCH?
        self.add_flow(datapath, 0, match, actions)
 
    def add_flow(self, datapath, priority, match, actions):
        # 1 datapath for the switch, 2priority for flow entry, 3match field, 4action for packet
        ofproto = datapath.ofproto
        ofp_parser = datapath.ofproto_parser
        # install flow
        inst = [ofp_parser.OFPInstructionActions(ofproto.OFPIT_APPLY_ACTIONS, actions)]
        mod = ofp_parser.OFPFlowMod(datapath=datapath, priority=priority, match=match, instructions=inst)
        datapath.send_msg(mod)
 
    @set_ev_cls(ofp_event.EventOFPPacketIn, MAIN_DISPATCHER)
    def packet_in_handler(self, ev):
        msg = ev.msg
        datapath = msg.datapath
        ofproto = datapath.ofproto
        ofp_parser = datapath.ofproto_parser
        in_port = msg.match['in_port']  # get in port of the packet
 
        # add a flow entry for the packet
        match = ofp_parser.OFPMatch()
        actions = [ofp_parser.OFPActionOutput(ofproto.OFPP_FLOOD)]
        self.add_flow(datapath, 1, match, actions)
 
        # to output the current packet. for install rules only output later packets
        out = ofp_parser.OFPPacketOut(datapath=datapath, buffer_id=msg.buffer_id, in_port=in_port, actions=actions)
        # buffer id: locate the buffered packet
        datapath.send_msg(out)

实验6:开源控制器实践——RYU

(二)进阶要求

1.阅读Ryu关于simple_switch.py和simple_switch_1x.py的实现,以simple_switch_13.py为例,完成其代码的注释工作,并回答下列问题:

# Copyright (C) 2011 Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#    http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or
# implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

# 引入数据包
from ryu.base import app_manager
from ryu.controller import ofp_event
from ryu.controller.handler import CONFIG_DISPATCHER, MAIN_DISPATCHER
from ryu.controller.handler import set_ev_cls
from ryu.ofproto import ofproto_v1_3
from ryu.lib.packet import packet
from ryu.lib.packet import ethernet
from ryu.lib.packet import ether_types


class SimpleSwitch13(app_manager.RyuApp):
    # 定义openflow版本
    OFP_VERSIONS = [ofproto_v1_3.OFP_VERSION]

    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        super(SimpleSwitch13, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)
        self.mac_to_port = {}  # 定义保存mac地址到端口的一个映射

    # 处理SwitchFeatures事件
    @set_ev_cls(ofp_event.EventOFPSwitchFeatures, CONFIG_DISPATCHER)
    def switch_features_handler(self, ev):
        datapath = ev.msg.datapath
        ofproto = datapath.ofproto
        parser = datapath.ofproto_parser

        # install table-miss flow entry
        #
        # We specify NO BUFFER to max_len of the output action due to
        # OVS bug. At this moment, if we specify a lesser number, e.g.,
        # 128, OVS will send Packet-In with invalid buffer_id and
        # truncated packet data. In that case, we cannot output packets
        # correctly.  The bug has been fixed in OVS v2.1.0.
        match = parser.OFPMatch()  # match指流表项匹配,OFPMatch()指不匹配任何信息
        actions = [parser.OFPActionOutput(ofproto.OFPP_CONTROLLER,
                                          ofproto.OFPCML_NO_BUFFER)]
        self.add_flow(datapath, 0, match, actions)

    # add_flow()增加流表项
    # datapath:指定的 Switch
    # priority:此规则的优先权
    # match:此规则的 Match 条件
    # actions:动作
    def add_flow(self, datapath, priority, match, actions, buffer_id=None):
        # 获取交换机信息
        ofproto = datapath.ofproto
        parser = datapath.ofproto_parser
        # 对action进行包装
        inst = [parser.OFPInstructionActions(ofproto.OFPIT_APPLY_ACTIONS,
                                             actions)]
        # 判断是否存在buffer_id,并生成mod对象
        if buffer_id:
            mod = parser.OFPFlowMod(datapath=datapath, buffer_id=buffer_id,
                                    priority=priority, match=match,
                                    instructions=inst)
        else:
            mod = parser.OFPFlowMod(datapath=datapath, priority=priority,
                                    match=match, instructions=inst)
        # 发送出去
        datapath.send_msg(mod)

    # 处理PacketIn事件
    @set_ev_cls(ofp_event.EventOFPPacketIn, MAIN_DISPATCHER)
    def _packet_in_handler(self, ev):
        # If you hit this you might want to increase
        # the "miss_send_length" of your switch
        if ev.msg.msg_len < ev.msg.total_len:
            self.logger.debug("packet truncated: only %s of %s bytes",
                              ev.msg.msg_len, ev.msg.total_len)
        # 解析数据结构
        msg = ev.msg    # ev.msg 是代表packet_in data structure对象
        datapath = msg.datapath
        # dp. ofproto 和 dp.ofproto_parser 是代表 Ryu 和交换机谈判的 OpenFlow 协议的对象
        # dp.ofproto and dp.ofproto_parser are objects that represent the OpenFlow protocol that Ryu and the switch negotiated
        ofproto = datapath.ofproto
        parser = datapath.ofproto_parser
        in_port = msg.match['in_port']  # 获取源端口

        pkt = packet.Packet(msg.data)
        eth = pkt.get_protocols(ethernet.ethernet)[0]

        if eth.ethertype == ether_types.ETH_TYPE_LLDP:
            # 忽略LLDP类型的数据包
            # ignore lldp packet
            return
        dst = eth.dst  # 获取目的端口
        src = eth.src  # 获取源端口

        dpid = format(datapath.id, "d").zfill(16)
        self.mac_to_port.setdefault(dpid, {})

        self.logger.info("packet in %s %s %s %s", dpid, src, dst, in_port)

        # 学习包的源地址,和交换机上的入端口绑定
        # learn a mac address to avoid FLOOD next time.
        self.mac_to_port[dpid][src] = in_port

        # 查看是否已经学习过该目的mac地址
        if dst in self.mac_to_port[dpid]:  # 如果目的地址存在于mac_to_port中
            out_port = self.mac_to_port[dpid][dst]
        # 否则,洪泛
        else:
            out_port = ofproto.OFPP_FLOOD  # OFPP_FLOOD标志表示应在所有端口发送数据包,即洪泛

        actions = [parser.OFPActionOutput(out_port)]

        # 下发流表避免下次触发 packet in 事件
        # install a flow to avoid packet_in next time
        if out_port != ofproto.OFPP_FLOOD:
            match = parser.OFPMatch(in_port=in_port, eth_dst=dst, eth_src=src)
            # verify if we have a valid buffer_id, if yes avoid to send both
            # flow_mod & packet_out
            if msg.buffer_id != ofproto.OFP_NO_BUFFER:
                self.add_flow(datapath, 1, match, actions, msg.buffer_id)
                return
            else:
                self.add_flow(datapath, 1, match, actions)
        data = None
        if msg.buffer_id == ofproto.OFP_NO_BUFFER:
            data = msg.data

        # 发送Packet_out数据包
        out = parser.OFPPacketOut(datapath=datapath, buffer_id=msg.buffer_id,
                                  in_port=in_port, actions=actions, data=data)
        # 发送流表
        datapath.send_msg(out)

a) 代码当中的mac_to_port的作用是什么?
mac_to_port的作用是保存mac地址到交换机端口的映射

b) simple_switch和simple_switch_13在dpid的输出上有何不同?
在simple_switch_13.py中为dpid = format(datapath.id, "d").zfill(16)
在simple_switch.py中为dpid = datapath.id
在simple_switch_13.py中使用了zfill() 方法返回指定长度为16的字符串,原字符串右对齐,前面填充0;而simple_switch.py直接输出dpid

c) 相比simple_switch,simple_switch_13增加的switch_feature_handler实现了什么功能?
增加了实现交换机以特性应答消息响应特性请求功能

d) simple_switch_13是如何实现流规则下发的?
在触发PacketIn事件后,首先解析相关数据结构,获取协议信息、获取源端口、包学习,交换机信息,以太网信息,等。如果以太网类型是LLDP类型,则忽略。如果不是LLDP类型,则获取目的端口和源端口还有交换机id,然后进行交换机自学习,先学习源地址对应的交换机的入端口,再查看是否已经学习目的mac地址,如果没有就洪泛转发。如果学习过,则查看是否有buffer_id,如果有则在添加流时加上buffer_id,向交换机发送数据包和流表。

e) switch_features_handler和_packet_in_handler两个事件在发送流规则的优先级上有何不同?
switch_features_handler下发流表的优先级比_packet_in_handler高

2.编程实现和ODL实验的一样的硬超时功能

# Copyright (C) 2011 Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#    http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or
# implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

from ryu.base import app_manager
from ryu.controller import ofp_event
from ryu.controller.handler import CONFIG_DISPATCHER, MAIN_DISPATCHER
from ryu.controller.handler import set_ev_cls
from ryu.ofproto import ofproto_v1_3
from ryu.lib.packet import packet
from ryu.lib.packet import ethernet
from ryu.lib.packet import ether_types


class SimpleSwitch13(app_manager.RyuApp):
    OFP_VERSIONS = [ofproto_v1_3.OFP_VERSION]

    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        super(SimpleSwitch13, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)
        self.mac_to_port = {}

    @set_ev_cls(ofp_event.EventOFPSwitchFeatures, CONFIG_DISPATCHER)
    def switch_features_handler(self, ev):
        datapath = ev.msg.datapath
        ofproto = datapath.ofproto
        parser = datapath.ofproto_parser

        # install table-miss flow entry
        #
        # We specify NO BUFFER to max_len of the output action due to
        # OVS bug. At this moment, if we specify a lesser number, e.g.,
        # 128, OVS will send Packet-In with invalid buffer_id and
        # truncated packet data. In that case, we cannot output packets
        # correctly.  The bug has been fixed in OVS v2.1.0.
        match = parser.OFPMatch()
        actions = [parser.OFPActionOutput(ofproto.OFPP_CONTROLLER,
                                          ofproto.OFPCML_NO_BUFFER)]
        self.add_flow(datapath, 0, match, actions)

    def add_flow(self, datapath, priority, match, actions, buffer_id=None, hard_timeout=0):
        ofproto = datapath.ofproto
        parser = datapath.ofproto_parser

        inst = [parser.OFPInstructionActions(ofproto.OFPIT_APPLY_ACTIONS,
                                             actions)]
        if buffer_id:
            mod = parser.OFPFlowMod(datapath=datapath, buffer_id=buffer_id,
                                    priority=priority, match=match,
                                    instructions=inst, hard_timeout=hard_timeout)
        else:
            mod = parser.OFPFlowMod(datapath=datapath, priority=priority,
                                    match=match, instructions=inst, hard_timeout=hard_timeout)
        datapath.send_msg(mod)

    @set_ev_cls(ofp_event.EventOFPPacketIn, MAIN_DISPATCHER)
    def _packet_in_handler(self, ev):
        # If you hit this you might want to increase
        # the "miss_send_length" of your switch
        if ev.msg.msg_len < ev.msg.total_len:
            self.logger.debug("packet truncated: only %s of %s bytes",
                              ev.msg.msg_len, ev.msg.total_len)
        msg = ev.msg
        datapath = msg.datapath
        ofproto = datapath.ofproto
        parser = datapath.ofproto_parser
        in_port = msg.match['in_port']

        pkt = packet.Packet(msg.data)
        eth = pkt.get_protocols(ethernet.ethernet)[0]

        if eth.ethertype == ether_types.ETH_TYPE_LLDP:
            # ignore lldp packet
            return
        dst = eth.dst
        src = eth.src

        dpid = format(datapath.id, "d").zfill(16)
        self.mac_to_port.setdefault(dpid, {})

        self.logger.info("packet in %s %s %s %s", dpid, src, dst, in_port)

        # learn a mac address to avoid FLOOD next time.
        self.mac_to_port[dpid][src] = in_port

        if dst in self.mac_to_port[dpid]:
            out_port = self.mac_to_port[dpid][dst]
        else:
            out_port = ofproto.OFPP_FLOOD

        actions = [parser.OFPActionOutput(out_port)]

        actions_timeout=[]

        # install a flow to avoid packet_in next time
        if out_port != ofproto.OFPP_FLOOD:
            match = parser.OFPMatch(in_port=in_port, eth_dst=dst, eth_src=src)
            # verify if we have a valid buffer_id, if yes avoid to send both
            # flow_mod & packet_out
            hard_timeout=10
            if msg.buffer_id != ofproto.OFP_NO_BUFFER:
                self.add_flow(datapath, 2, match,actions_timeout, msg.buffer_id,hard_timeout=10)
                self.add_flow(datapath, 1, match, actions, msg.buffer_id)
                return
            else:
                self.add_flow(datapath, 2, match, actions_timeout, hard_timeout=10)
                self.add_flow(datapath, 1, match, actions)
        data = None
        if msg.buffer_id == ofproto.OFP_NO_BUFFER:
            data = msg.data

        out = parser.OFPPacketOut(datapath=datapath, buffer_id=msg.buffer_id,
                                  in_port=in_port, actions=actions, data=data)
        datapath.send_msg(out)

实验6:开源控制器实践——RYU
实验6:开源控制器实践——RYU

二、实验总结

  • 遇到的问题
    1.打开L2Switch,拓扑构建完成后进行pingall指令,出现了ping不通的问题
    解决方法:先启用ryu控制器,而后打开L2Switch,最后再进行拓扑构建,问题顺利解决
    2.打开L2032002428和Timeout,构建拓扑后一直pingall不通
    解决方法:猜想可能跟Openflow协议有关,于是构建拓扑的命令改成sudo mn --topo=single,3 --mac --controller=remote,ip=127.0.0.1,port=6633 --switch ovsk,问题解决
  • 个人心得
    在本次实验中,通过阅读RYU文档并查看相关模块的源代码,了解了RYU控制器的工作原理,并比较了RYU的L2Switch模块与POX的Hub模块的异同。本次的实验难度适中,同时实验操作与前两次实验ODL和POX控制器相差不大,但是时间一直花费在pingall ping不通的问题上,最后查阅资料,还是把问题解决了。通过本次实验,也使得我对RYU的控制机制有了深入的认识,同时也对SDN有了更深刻的认识。总之,收获颇丰!
程序员灯塔
转载请注明原文链接:实验6:开源控制器实践——RYU
喜欢 (0)
违法和不良信息举报电话:022-22558618 举报邮箱:dljd@tidljd.com